Berikut adalah bagian paper tentang e-Government di Sragen yang saya kirimkan untuk PACIS 2007 di Selandia Baru.
The impacts of the Sragen e-government initiative are discussed in the following section, in light of the three e-government challenges mentioned above, i.e. management, infrastructure, and human factors.
Management factor. Political leadership with a clear vision is necessary to ensure successful implementation of e-government and efficient change management, to solve organizational and cultural inertia can only be done with a strong leadership. The organizational and cultural changes are often more difficult to carry out than the technological challenges. The Bupati claimed that: Change management is necessary to make e-government implementation successful.
In his meetings with the staff, the Bupati often stresses that those who are against (the e-government processes) should quit their job. This strong political leadership performed by the Bupati has given apparent results, manifested as support from all levels of the governmental offices and even from his political rivals in the local parliament. The Bupati’s background as a successful businessman in gas exploration may have a strong influence on his managerial style. In Sragen, he has experienced that managing civil servants is easier than managing private sector staff. The Bupati asserted, “Loyalty and commitment of the civil servants are better than those in the private companies. Hence, it is easier to encourage them. In Sragen, being a civil servant is still a high status.
Human factor. Sragen’s vision when implementing e-government is to improve public services. The Bupati pays serious attention to change the mind-set of the civil servants to be more service-oriented. Clearly, this is not an easy task to do. He stated, “I spent the first six months when I was in the position to do brain washing of the civil servants. The objective is to increase their awareness in improving public service quality.
To improve the public service quality, best practices from private sector are brought in. We want to make a new paradigm, new working culture, and new norms, declared The Head of the KPT. All initiatives are aiming to show a more friendly service atmosphere to the public, and the public service quality is evaluated regularly. In the first semester of 2006, we could process 65% of all requested services in a shorter time as expected, told the Head of the KPT. Asian Development Bank and International Finance Corporation even recommend the KPT as a model for other districts.
The strong leadership is also apparent when coping with the lack of IT literacy among the staff. Regular IT training is set-up by the local government to improve the IT literacy especially for young public officers and key personnel. Kumar and Best (2006) indicates that lack of adequately trained personnel is one of the main critical failure factors of e-government implementation. Young staffs and key persons should be able to operate a computer, stated the Bupati. The government also hires professional to fill-in IT-related position to speed-up e-government implementation. This initiative is inline with what Rose (2004: 226) suggests that “one means of support from the private sector would be providing human resources. Since few local government staffs are experts in digital information technology, the local government could have a joint operation with the private sector.”
In addition to serve the internal market in Sragen, Section for Research, Development, and Electronic Data now also use their experience to offer consultant services to other districts in Indonesia, in implementing e-government solutions. This is an answer to the entrepreneurial challenge set up by the Bupati for all offices. The Bupati asserted “I challenge all heads of office to be able to be consultants for other districts when they have implemented an e-government program in Sragen. The service fee they charge for this contributes to increase the Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD, Real Regional Income) and also gives a small, legal, income for the Sragen staff.
Infrastructure factor. Despite limited infrastructure and financial support, several e-government initiatives have been taken in Sragen. The Internet bandwidth used is, however, only 128 kbps, to serve all 52 offices. The limited bandwidth is the reasons that they do not offer the e-government services online via Internet, but from service points at the sub-district offices. Some of the e-government applications are provided by the central government. In order to able to provide a cost-effective IT infrastructure, the Sragen government have established Badan Usaha Milik Daerah (BUMD, a local-government owned enterprises). An important additional initiative is collaboration with private sector. For instance, running the e-government application for processing ID-card is provided by a private partner using a “profit-sharing” principle.
So far, we have studied the e-government in Sragen from the government’s side (i.e. the supply side). From 2007 they have planned to connect all 209 village offices in Sragen to the Internet, which is a good starting point for supplying the public with access to the Internet and to study the demand side of the e-government solutions closer.